Glossary (English version)

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Within this glossary all terms are collected that somehow need explanation in educational context. Since PUMEC is an EU project by seven partners from five different countries speaking four languages, this glossary is available in German, Polish, and Finish, too!




Affiliate Marketing 
A popular marketing technique that partners merchant with website in which the merchant compensates the website based on performance (e.g. referrals).
Also referred to as a feedreader, an aggregator is a tool that collects all the feeds a user has subscribed to and places them into an organized, readable form on the desktop or in an internet browser.
Asynchronous JavaScript And XML (Ajax) is a Web development technique for creating interactive Web applications. The intent is to make Web pages feel more responsive by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes, so that the entire Web page does not have to be reloaded each time the use makes a change. This is meant to increase the Web page's interactivity, speed, and usability.
Anchor Text 
The visible text used in a hyperlink. Anchor Text can improve Search Engine Optimization (see definition below) by making hyperlink text relevant to the landing page of a Web site.
A computer program with an interface, enabling people to use the computer as a tool to accomplish a specific task. Word processing, spreadsheet, and communications software are all examples of applications.
Describes formal public relations projects that deliberately seek to engineer the impression of spontaneous grassroots behavior. The goal is the appearance of independent public reaction to a politician, political group, product, service, event, or similar entities by centrally orchestrating the behavior of many diverse and geographically distributed individuals.
Asynchronous Interaction 
Online discussions that occur independent of time or location in which participants send messages to a central location (e.g. a discussion forum). These messages are archived for later retrieval from other participants. Examples of asynchronous interaction include web based bulletin boards and email.
A special format of RSS Feeds. A form of programming for Web sites or blogs that feeds the content to end-users rather than requiring them to return to the site for updates.


Back Channel 
Communication, such as email or instant message, that is sent personally to one or more individuals as opposed to being sent to a public conferencing forum. Back channel is rarely documented, but is a major component in online interactions.
Blended learning 
A learning method that combines the methods of distance education (e-learning) with traditional teaching methods. Synchronous model (same time of transmission and reception of knowledge) and asynchronous model (time of transmission and reception of knowledge) are used in blended learning. This method combines the training methods, such as practical workshops, classes, lectures, e-training, e-tests, consultations with a trainer, etc. These methods are selected based on analysis of needs and as a result of group training.
All blogs, or the blogging community. Also called blogistan or, more rarely, blogspace.
A list within a blog, usually in a vertical menu along the side, that links to other blogs.
A Web site (or Web log) in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed with the newest at the top. An online journal that mixes candor, informality, opinion, and links to third-party information. It is easy to update, requires no programming, and allows readers to add their own comments. Best practice: Wordpress & Blogspot
Buzz Marketing 
A viral marketing technique that attempts to make each encounter with a "prospect" a personal, spontaneous interaction instead of a hard sell. Techniques often include using influential opinion leaders to spark a word-of-mouth campaign within their sphere of influence.


Consumer-generated media (CGM) describes word-of-mouth behavior that exists on the Internet. Typically, CGM encompasses opinions, experiences, advice and commentary about products, brands, companies and services — usually informed by personal experience — that exist in consumer-created postings on Internet discussion boards, forums, Usenet newsgroups and blogs.
is use to enable communication between two or more users in a display-based communications system for example : chat room.
Chat room 
is  used  for example by mass media to synchronous conferencing . The term means any technology starting from real-time online chat through,  instant messaging and online forums to social environments.
Cloud computing 
Cloud computing is a wide term which simply means that all technical computations happen remotely from the user in the so-called cloud. The term cloud originated from the way Internet has been portrayed as a cloud. In the business world this usually has the meaning of e.g. software being deployed as a service instead of a single product. This so-called Software-as-a-Service or SaaS has many advantages, both economical and also even ecological. Economical factors include cloud-based services being considerably lower in cost and the costs follow the amount of users dynamically. Best practice: DropBox
Creative commons 
A non-profit organizations from the U.S., aiming to find a compromise between full copyright protection and unfettered use of the work of others. The main purpose of this organization is to create a reasonable and flexible set of rules in the face of restrictive rules of copyright which may pose barriers to the free flow of information. This organization is known as Creative Commons and was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig and Eric Eldred.
Crowd funding 
Organized by group of people - support of a wide variety of activities. Collective effort of individuals who network and pool their resources, usually via the Internet, to support products or activities other people or organizations.
Based on Open Source software, Crowdsourcing is a technique in which a task is broadcast to a wide network of participants. The best results from the assigned task are rewarded by moving ahead to the next step of the overall project.
this is some kind of metaphor for describing the non-physical space created by computer systems. In the online systems like a cyberspace people can communicate with each other , do research, or do the shopping. Like  real physical space, cyberspace contains objects and different way of transport and delivery. The only difference is that you don't have to move yourself, you can do everything using just a mouse. Best practice: Second Life


Digital divide (digital gap) 
inequalities in ICT (information and communication technologies) skills and access to tools and computer programs.
Digital exclusion 
social phenomenon as a result of the lack of skills in using new technologies, usually affects people over age 50.
Digital inclusion 
Opposite of digital exclusion. As social inclusion in the 21st century that ensures individuals and disadvantaged groups have access to, and skills to use, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and are therefore able to participate in and benefit from Washington’s growing knowledge and information society.
Digital library 
A library with book collections in digital formats, is accessible by computers or other electronical tools (mobile).The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks or Internet. Best practice: Europeana
Digital literacy 
The ability to use digital technology, communication tools or networks to locate, evaluate, use and create information.
Digital signature 
A digital signature (not to be confused with a digital certificate) is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has been sent is unchanged.
D-learning (distance learning) 
Or distance education is a field of education that focuses on teaching methods and technology with the aim of delivering teaching, often on an individual basis, to students who are not physically present in a traditional educational setting such as a classroom.


The electronic book (also known as e-book, ebook, digital book) is a book in digital form, consisting of text and images .It is intended to be read using the appropriate software installed on your computer (eg PC, eBook reader, mobile phone, MP4 or PDA).
This is some kind of a new way to access news, features, events, notices and pictures.
Edutainment (entertainment-education) 
A form of education which is designed to be entertaining, in order to keep people interested and engaged. A wide variety of formats can be used to many things like edutainment with ranging and books with guided tours . Their purpose to activate people to learn and build interactions between the teacher (or a tool of education) and a student.
A small, portable device onto which the contents of a guide in electronic format read.
Also know as Distance Learning, is a type of education where individuals work on independently from any Internet connected location and communicate with faculty and other students via e-mail, electronic forums, videoconferencing and other forms of computer-based communication. Different online services provide the possibility to easily share, distribute and edit educational material. Best practice: Ecorner
A collection of electronic evidence assembled and managed by a user, usually on the Internet . The users' e-portfolios can be used as a platforms of self-expression, access to the audience and for multiple others purposes. In the process of learning, e-portfolio supports self-reflection, which leads to greater awareness of their own achievements and shortcomings of the learner. In education, e-portfolio can be helpful when a formal assessment of the learner, where the teacher or tutor has access to the full picture of progress and achievements documented digitally. Some e-portfolio systems allow you to choose different portfolio components for different audiences, so that an e-portfolio can be used for many purposes.
The process of measuring either the point of gaze or the motion of an eye relative to the head. Tracker is the device for measuring eye positions and eye movement. This device is used in many disciplines for example in psychology, and cognitive linguistics Scientists know many methods of recording human visual activity starting from the direct observation by invasive mechanical methods to the study of electric potential difference between the two sides of the eyeball. One of the most popular methods is the video recording of visual activity by devices mounted on the head (Eye-tracking mobile).


Also known as webfeeds or blog feeds, a feed is a document that contains content items, often summaries of stories or blog posts, that include web links to longer versions. Feeds are subscribed to directly by users with aggregators or feed readers (see definition above) that combine the contents of multiple web feeds for display on a single screen or series of screens.
Flash animation 
kind of animated film which is created using animation software and is often employed in the Internet - in advertisment, on-line games, cartoons, animated websites.
Flash card 
virtual version of paper flashcard which are using as a learning tool.
A collaboratively generated, open-ended labeling system that enables Internet users to categorize content such as Web pages, online photographs, and Web links. The freely chosen labels — called tags — help to improve search engine effectiveness because content is categorized using a familiar, accessible, and shared vocabulary.
Forums (discussion forum) 
A specific virtual space for discussion where people can hold on-line conversations in the form of posted messages. Each forums has its own users and usage policies, usally has moderators and administrators who care about the order.


Transfer way of thinking used to create games for the improvement of any non-gaming elements such as applications, web sites, but also training, education, things of our everyday live to make them more fun and interesting. Gamification can be applied in any environment, and virtually everything can be change in order to become more interesting and engaging, changing the user's player.
Game on-line 
The type of computer games that require access to the Internet. The advantage of online games is possibility to play in multiplayer mode, the availability of wide variety of games for all type of game players and great percentage of games don’t require payment.


An electronic link providing direct access from one distinctively marked place in a hypertext or hypermedia document to another in the same or a different document.


Information literacy 
see Digital Literacy
Instant messenger
Program or application which allows to send short text messages between two or more persons. Currently, these programs allow you to exchange files, voice chat and also video chat.
Interactive games 
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player responds to electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen.
Invisable web (deep web) 
These are part of the Web, which user can not find using a simple search engine.


Is a programming language that is executed in the user's browser to change the contents of a website dynamically. It's possible to do simple changes (e.g. check the syntactic correctness of an e-mail-adress) as well as complex manipulations (e.g. reloading of complete websites using Ajax). There are a lot of JavaScript libraries that supply rich functionalities to develop complex web-applications very fast. Best practice: jQuery


Key word 
A word used as a reference point for finding other words or information.


Link Bait 
Any content or feature within a Web site that is interesting enough to catch the viewers’ attention. Link Bait “baits” viewers to link to the Web site from other Web sites. This is often used as a tactic to improve SEO.
Link Blitz 
A targeted initiative to generate inbound links to a Web site or blog.
Link Blogs 
A blog intended to share weblinks, typically found on a personal Web site or blog.
means taking the media and broadcasting it live over the Internet. Livestreaming may be payable or available only to selected customers, but also available to everyone for free.
Is an acronym for Learning Management System. It's a complex software system that can host learning content as well as supply the organisation of learning processes. Most of the modern LMS are web-based Virtual Learning Environments that usually support the communication between learners and teachers.


A Web site or Web application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience. Content used in mashups is typically sourced from a third party via a public interface or API. Other methods of sourcing content for mashups include Web feeds (e.g. RSS or Atom) and JavaScript.
Media player 
It is a tool (program) used to play audio files, films, and more.
Kind of blog that contains brief informations about current activities of an individual or company. It is usually created to keep friends, colleagues and customers up-to-date. Users can share with friends small images as well as brief audio and video clips. Nowadays the most popular microblog is Twitter. Best practice: Twitter
The description of small, focused audio and video programs delivered directly to a specialized audience on a program-by-program basis rather than a channel-by-channel basis. As opposed to broadcasting, a microcast is generally niche programming that users can subscribe to via many delivery and display devices.
Mind map 
An innovative way of presenting issues, is often created around a single word, text or image, placed in the center, to which associated ideas, words and concepts are added. Best practice: Xmind
M-Learning (mobile learning) 
Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies.
A blog created through input from mobile devices such as PDAs or phones. They may also include photos from mobile camera phones.
Mobile application 
can be used on smartphones or other mobile device. Smartphone users can use the mobile versions of popular programs and social networks.
As the name implies, multimedia is the integration of multiple forms of media. This includes text, graphics, audio, video, etc. For example, a presentation involving audio and video clips would be considered a "multimedia presentation."


Electronic form of the publication containing generally about one main topic that is of interest or current events. Newsletter is periodically sent via email to subscribers.
Browser-like window that allows readers to shop for and subscribe to different content providers (using RSS) and aggregate all the feeds into the browser.
A system of interconnected objects. We can talk about the telephone or radio networks. Currently, the most common are computer networks (a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing resources and information) and social networks is a social structure made up of a set of actors such as individuals or organizations and the strong ties between these actors. We can say that social network is some kind of a social group. Best practice: Facebook


On-line test 
application which replaces paper versions of the test, you can fill it having access to the Internet.
On-line poll 
application which replaces paper versions of the questionnaire/poll, you can fill it having access to the Internet.
On-line voting 
the ability to vote with a device connected to the Internet
Open Source 
see the detailed page for Open Source
Outline Processor Markup Language is an XML format for outlines. Originally developed as a native file format for an outliner application, it has since been adopted for other uses, the most common being to exchange lists of RSS feeds between RSS aggregators.


Audio content similar to blogs than can be downloaded to iPods or other MP3 players. Best practice: Podcasts for English Teaching


A Quick Response - Code is a two-dimensional code that usually contains encrypted URL of extended material of a certain thing.


Really Simple Syndication. A form of programming that allows end-users to subscribe to Web sites or blogs and have updates fed to their Newsreader automatically. The content can be anything from small bits of information to press releases and entire blogs.


kind of recording of actions presented on a computer screen, an image is seen by the computer user, it shows specific functions commented by narrator. It can be used as instruction or presentation.
Posting an initial message or series of messages in a discussion space to initiative a conversation.
Search Engine Marketing.
  • Search engine advertising: Paying the search engine for a guaranteed high ranking or an ad to accompany search results (pay per click advertising).
  • Search engine optimization: Modifying a Web site’s structure and content to be easily read and understood by search engine software. This improves a site’s ranking in keyword searches.
  • Paid inclusion: Paying a search engine for a guaranteed listing in their natural search index.
Semantic web
The Semantic Web is a collaborative movement led by the international standards body, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The standard promotes common data formats on the World Wide Web. By encouraging the inclusion of semantic content in web pages, the Semantic Web aims at converting the current web dominated by unstructured and semi-structured documents into a "web of data". (Wikipedia)
Search Engine Optimization. A set of methods aimed at improving the ranking of a Web site in search engine listings. The term also refers to an industry of consultants who carry out optimization projects on behalf of clients' sites.
Social Media
see special page for Social Media
Social Bookmarking
Using the technique of Folksonomy (see definition above), Social Bookmarking has become a popular way to store, classify and share search links with other Web sites and blogs.
Social Computing
The use of social software, and thus represents a growing trend of ICT usage concerned with tools that support social interaction and communication.
Social Intermediaries
Resources such as Digg and, allow users to collect and submit links to news, Web sites, and other media the are rated by other users. Best practice: & Digg
Future phone, combined the functions of small computer with a mobile phone. This kind of phone has portable media players, low-end compact digital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation. Modern smartphones has high-resolution touchscreens, web browsers and much more functions than normal phone.


A mobile computer, which is primarily operated by touching the screen
Tag Cloud 
A visual depiction of content tags used on a website. Selecting a single tag within a tag cloud will generally lead to a collection of items that are associated with that tag.
Tags are basically used as categories or subjects in Web logs. Tagging makes it easier for people – and blog search engines – to organize and look for information in the right places.
A series of posts on a single topic.
A piece of programming that shows a blogger who is linking to their blog and delivers snippets of what they said.
Kind of instruction which shows example and supply the information to complete a certain task, it can be a description in the form of text, text with pictures. Nowadays are also popular video tutorials.


User Generated Content 
Various kinds of media content that is produced or primarily influenced by end-users. Content can include incremental individual efforts or collaboration (e.g. co-creation) on goods, products or resources.


Vblog or Vlog (Video blog)
A blog that uses video as its primary content. The video is linked to a post and is usually accompanied by supporting text, images, and additional metadata to provide context. Best practice: []
Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
An education system based on the Internet. You can learn by integrating, taking virtual tests, doing homework or attending museum lessons. A virtual learning environment can  include students and teacher on online meeting . The teacher is able to present lessons through video, PowerPoint, or chat on the other hand the students are able to talk with other students and the teacher, as well as collaborate with each other.
Virtual university (VU)
VU is an attempt to free the academic study of the limitations of space and time. The keywords are: virtual courses, web-based learning, networking among teachers and learners, and educational software. Best practice: Coursera
Virtual exhibitions
An exhibition which venue is cyberspace. They are created because an online exhibition may : present more works of art, is cheaper and reaches more people.
Virtual museum
A museum that exists only online. Just like a traditional museum a virtual museum can be designed around specific objects or can consist of new exhibitions . When you are in that kind of museum you can feel like in traditional museum and sometimes see more than in traditional museum. Best practice: Exhibitions Europeana
Voice over IP (VoIP)
Digital technology enables audio transmission via the Internet or Internet telephony. Best practice: Skype


Web 2.0
Refers to a second generation of services available on the World Wide Web that let people collaborate and share information online. In contrast to the first generation, Web 2.0 gives users an experience closer to desktop applications than the traditional static Web pages.
Web 3.0
Web 3.0 = Semantic Web + Web 2.0
Web application
A web application or web application is a computer program that runs in a Web browser.
Type of online seminar led and implemented using webcast technology that enables two-way communication between the teacher and participants of the meeting, with using of virtual tools.
see Blog
A is a collection of Web sites pulled from various locations the Internet that are joined in a circular, ring-like structure that links together a group of sites with the same theme. Each Web site included in a Webring has a common navigation bar that contains links to the previous and next site within the Webring. Used as a SEO technique, the purpose of the Webring is to allow more visitors to reach the related sites with more ease and efficiency.
Web usability is an approach to make web sites easy to use for an end-user, without the requirement that any specialized training be undertaken.
A third party item that can be embedded in a web page and executed within any separate Web page without requiring additional compilation. A widget can be compared to a plug-in in desktop operations.
From the Hawaiian term for "quick", this is a form of Web site that allows readers to edit and contribute content directly. It is an open, collaborative site on the Web.
Word of Mouth. The passing of information by verbal means, especially recommendations, but also general information, in an informal, person-to-person manner, rather than by mass media, advertising, organized publication, or traditional marketing. Word of mouth is typically considered a spoken communication, although Web dialogue such as blogs, message boards, and emails are often now included in the definition. Person-to-person marketing can be extremely efficient in positive and also negative ways.
An acronym for "What You See is What You Get", WYSIWYG refers to a system in which the content view in the editing phase appears very similar to the final product view. WYSIWYG software, like word processor, optimizes the screen display for that particular type of output, like a printer. The software often emulates the resolution of the output in order to get as close as possible to WYSIWYG. This allows users to format content without requiring specific knowledge of the code. A word processor is a simple example of such software. Other implementations of the idea is e.g. modern Website development and creation software like Adobe Dreamweaver or Microsoft Frontpage (which is a discontinued piece of software). There are also several similar tools provided by the Open Source community, for example NVU/Kompozer for Linux and Bluefish.





See Also

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